What is spelling?
“a complex linguistic process without which writers could not generate write language”
What linguistic process goes into forming words?
A third process involved in spelling is orthography. This includes learned letter sequences and letter-sound correspondences.
Words are formed in 3 ways:
words that are heard or spoken
onset/rimes, syllables, phonemes
words that are viewed and written
1 or 2 letter groups or larger multi-letter groups
any input mode
root word, prefi, suffix
Misspelled words are a result of errors in one of (or a combination of) these processes.
Misspelled words can be phonological, morphological, orthographic, phonological-morpological, phonological-orthographic, or motphological-orthographic in nature.
Other factors that affect spelling errors:
*Silliman & Wilkinson, 1991
How can SLPs use spelling assessment with their students?
By looking at the types of errors students are demonstrating (and there could be many!), you can have an idea of how they’re processing information, especially morphologic and phonological, and use this to guide intervention.
How should we assess spelling?
Assess spelling in a writing sample (rather than spelling lists)
Code errors as phonological, morphologic, or orthographic (or a combination)
Things to remember:
Spelling errors are developmental
Spelling errors are principled over time
English spelling is patterned and logical (contrary to common belief!)
Ideas for Intervention
Look at word patterns including phonological patterns and orthographic patterns
Sort sounds by phonemes and orthographic patterns
Build vocabulary and morphological knowledge