5 Pillars of Reading
1. Phonemic awareness
What is the link between oral language and written language?
1. Spoken language is the foundation for reading and writing development
2. Spoken language and written language build upon the other
3. Children with deficits in one area often have deficits in the other
4. Instruction in one area can result in growth in the other
*Taken from ASHA’s Position Statement
What are the oral language skills that build the foundation of literacy?
Phonics requires underlying skills in phonology.
Comprehension requires underlying skills in morphology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics.
So, how can SLPs be involved?
Joint book reading
Environmental print awareness
Print conventions and concepts
Phonology and phonological awareness
Alphabet and letter sound knowledge
Literacy and writing activities
- Joint book reading
- Environmental print awareness
- Print conventions and concepts
- Phonology and Phonological Awareness
- Alphabet and Letter-Sound Knowledge
- Story Knowledge
- Literacy and Writing Activities
model reading a book
point out things like signs, logos, etc…
read left to right, book covers, words on page, punctuation, etc…
rhyming, nursery rhymes, finger plays, etc…
naming letters, making words with letters, etc…
wordless books, predicting, theatre, role-play, retell, repeat readings
make lists, read instructions, follow recipes, write and draw with different implements
Participate in interdisciplinary teams
Collaborate with general education and special education teachers
Be willing to modify and expand your caseload
Participate in research
Stay informed through PD
Work with policy makers
Educate others about typical language development and its relation to literacy
Develop new methods and technologies for literacy training and assessment
Be knowledgeable of laws, regulations, and guidelines at the federal and state level.
Advocate for the specific and individual needs of students
Family dynamics – a history of reading difficulties, lack of exposure, limited awareness of print
History – developmental disorders, psychological issues, neurological issues, psychiatric issues, sensory deficits, preterm births
Phonological deficits – both phonological processes (speech) and phonological awareness
Speech sound deficits and late talking
Language deficits – word finding, naming, oral comprehension, discrepancy between receptive and expressive language, difficulties comprehending grade-level texts, inference difficulties, difficulty remembering new words
Cognitive deficits – slow processing, poor verbal and/or short term memory, poor attention, executive functioning difficulties
Reading deficits – difficulty writing, reading below grade level, reading is slow and effortful, remembering letter names/sounds
History of speech and language deficits
Find ways to increase literacy exposure
Collaborate with teachers for observations and screenings
Track difficulties as they emerge
follows developmental patterns
Environmental print skills
Reading, writing, and oral language skills.
Complex assessment of reading, writing, and oral language skills
Executive functioning skills.
Match the area of weakness (phonemic awareness, orthography, fluency, comprehension, attention) to a research-based intervention
Address needs on a continuum from the basic (sleep, nutrition) to reading comprehension
Be direct and explicit. Students should know what they’re doing and why. State your purpose, tell them when and where to use it, give them the steps, and then practice.
A Continuum of Intervention Skills:
Executive function skills
Phonological and phonemic awareness